Looking Beyond the Hype: Is Modular Monolithic Software Architecture Really Dead?

Reality check of Modular Monolithic Software Architecture in Modern software development

Source: Shutterstock

In the 2010s, many Web Scale companies such as Netflix, Amazon, Spotify, Uber had special requirements: App Scaling, Development Scale, Shorter Time to Market. They also found that existing Modular Monolithic Architectures or Service-Oriented Architectures (SOAs) could not complete their requirements. As a result, a new Software Architecture style was born in 2012: Microservices Software Architecture.

Since then, the popularity of MicroServices has skyrocketed with a lot of hubbub and optimism. The conference is filled with microservices talks and workshops. As we’ve seen all too often, hype and myth unite.

Microservice architecture is a great choice for many use cases. But like other Software Architectures, it also has a sweet spot (where it excels) and a corner case (where it fails).

Unfortunately, many people think of Microservices as a Silver Bullet, which solves all Software Development problems. They also discard other Architectural styles such as Modular Monolithic Architecture. Also, like hypnotized Technology, some people think of Microservices as the “Golden Hammer” and try to use it in all types of Software Development without thinking about the context.

Fascinated by the shiny new Microservice, people talk about Modular Monolithic Software Architecture as a terrible Architectural style that is about to die and has no place in modern software development. Also, if you are a Software Developer or Software Architect and speak for Modular Monolithic Software Architecture, then you will be expelled from your company. Your peers will see you as an Old School that resists the modernization of the Software Stack.

On the other hand, if you mention the term “Microservices Architecture” in a Design meeting, your coworkers will see you with great respect and admiration.

Is all criticism of Modular Monolithic Software Architecture justified? Is it dead and has no place in modern software development in the Era of Docker, Kubernetes, Cloud, Big Data, and faster release cycles?

In this article, I’ll take a deeper look at the Modular Monolithic software architecture and its relevance in the current software development landscape.

Modular Monolithic Architecture

Since the early days of Software Development (1950s), System Software was developed as a single system and used as a single process. Such software systems are referred to as Monolithic Software Systems. Here’s an example of a classic Monolithic Web Application:

Monolithic Web Application

In the above design, the entire tool is divided into multiple layers (Presentation, Business, Persistence), and the entire application is used on the Application Server/Web Server.

As Software Systems began to become increasingly complex (since the 1970s), Software Engineers handled that complexity by deciphering the entire system into modules that were “loosely combined, very cohesive”. This system is known as Modular Monolithic Software Architecture. Here is my definition of Modular Monolithic Software Architecture:

A software system that can consist of layers or hexagonal components and each layer or hexagonal component is then decomposed into a “loosely combined module, highly cohesive” but the complete system implemented as a whole is known as the Modular Monolithic Software Architecture.

Here’s an example of Modular Monolithic Architecture in large, complex Web Applications:

Modular Monolithic Web Application by Md Kamaruzzaman

In the above case, each layer is divided into several modules that are ” loosely combined, very cohesive” (e.g. Java libraries), which are connected internally (via method calls or function calls) depending on the language.

Here are the characteristics of Modular Monolithic Architecture:

  • Complete System Software in full use (all or none)
  • Modular borders are internal and can be crossed easily which can lead to Spaghetti Code (as shown above with yellow lines)
  • The application runs as a single process
  • This is one size for all, i.e. one solution for all application sizes
  • No strict data ownership between modules


  • Monolith has several moving parts (e.g., one process, one Application Server, one Database). As a result, it is easier to design, deploy, and test (system test, e2e test) Monolithic applications.
  • Due to the smaller number of moving parts, it has a smaller surface area to attack. As a result, it is easier to secure Monolithic applications.
  • Low operational complexity
  • Monolithic applications have one single OLTP database. As a result, transaction management and data sharing are made easier.
  • Because the shared CodeBase (which is often Spaghetti code) and shared data sources, it’s difficult to parse work among multiple teams. So, the scale of development is very bad.
  • The Large Monolithic codebase (often spaghetti code) puts enormous cognitive complexity at the head of the developer. As a result, the speed of development is becoming worse.
  • Detailed scaling (i.e., scaling part of the application) is not possible.
  • Programming Polyglot or polyglot databases is quite challenging.
  • Modernization is complicated by the Monolithic application of “All or None”.

In the 2010s, Web Scale companies found that for very large applications, modular monolithic software architectures were not appropriate and made Microservices Software Architectures. Here’s my definition of Microservices:

The microservices architecture also divides large and complex systems vertically (as per functional or business needs) into smaller sub-systems that are processes (hence independently applicable) and these sub-systems communicate with each other via light network calls without language (e.g. REST , gRPC)

If we’ve considered our large and complex Web Applications before, then here’s the Microservice-based Architecture of that application:

Architecture Microservice by Md Kamaruzzaman

Here are the characteristics of Microservice Architecture:

  • The entire application is divided into separate processes where each process can contain many modules.
  • As opposed to Modular Monoliths or SOA, Microservice applications are divided vertically (according to functionality or domain)
  • Microservice limits are external. As a result, Microservices communicates with each other through network calls.
  • Instead of one database, each Microservice has its database.
  • Additional data synchronization is required due to “database per Microservice”.

Contrary to hipes and myths, Microservices has many fair benefits and drawbacks as follows:


  • Better development scaling as teams can work in parallel across autonomous Microservices with little external dependency
  • Microservices are relatively small in size. This puts low cognitive complexity in the head of the developer, and the developer is more productive.
  • Since each Microservice is a separate process, it can be used independently. As a result, Microservice Architecture delivers a faster release cycle.
  • Granular scaling, that is, scaling part of an application, is possible.
  • Ownership of detailed data because each Microservice has its database
  • As long as external contracts are maintained, Microservice can be quickly replaced like Lego Block. So, Microservice application is easier to modernize.
  • Separating the entire system vertically is art and not science that requires extreme expertise. Additionally, splitting one database into multiple databases and then sharing data between those databases is a daunting task. So, designing the whole system is more complicated.
  • Code complexity is often replaced by operational complexity.
  • Because many databases (which are usually distributed), data sharing and transaction management become very challenging.
  • Due to the large number of moving parts (many processes, databases, network calls, containers, VMs), complete applications are much more difficult to secure.
  • Because of external network calls, the overall latency of the entire application is much higher.

In short, the answer is: No . In a recent interview with the Go Time podcast, Cloud and Kubernetes guru Kelsey Hightower has predicted the return of Modular Monolithic Architecture in the coming years. Also, in the previous post, “20 Predictions on Software Development trends in 2020”, I have predicted an increasing tendency to use Modular Monolith. There are also many Articles out there where companies have written how their efforts in moving Microservices Architecture failed, and they went to Monolithic Software Architecture.

When Microservices first came along, many people got carried away and thought that it was “One Architecture to organize everything”. They think Microservices Architecture is a silver bullet that can solve all the organizational limitations and technical complexities of a software system and try to use it anywhere. On the one hand, this reminds me of the SQL/NoSQL debate.

During the 2010s, when NoSQL emerged, many people discussed how SQL was outdated as Technology and had no place in the industry. After all, NoSQL offers horizontal scaling and is used by companies such as Google, Facebook, Amazon. So, they adopted a NoSQL database without thinking that the use case is different from the use case of Google or Facebook. Soon, companies learned painstakingly that they could not replace their transnational SQL databases with non-ACID NoSQL databases. Since the hype has subsided, we now know that the industry needs OLTP (SQL) databases along with OLAP (NoSQL) databases.

Here I list why Modular Monolithic Software Architecture is still relevant in modern software development and won’t die anytime soon:

  • Application Diversity: There are many large companies and Web Scale companies that need Microservice architecture. But there are also many companies where MicroServices Architecture is the wrong choice. For them, Modular Monolithic Architecture is the best choice. The landscape of modern software applications is quite diverse. It has a place for Modular Monolithic and Microservice software architectures.
  • Integrated Solutions : One of the greatest strengths of Modular Monolithic software architecture is providing solutions that have passed the test of time. When it fits the size of the application, Ruby on Rails or Spring Boot provides a set of well-defined and standard patterns for developing applications. On the contrary, Microservice architecture is like a wild west, and always depends on many factors (application size, context). If not carefully designed, MicroServices can quickly become “Distributed Monolith” with all the flaws of Monolith and all the hassles of Microservice.
  • Knowledge: Modular Monolithic Software Architecture has been around since the 1970s, and most developers know how to develop Modular Monolithic Software Architecture. Microservices are relatively new and understaffed. In addition, deciphering applications vertically is art, not science and requires a lot of expertise and practice. Many companies can develop software faster with a proven Modular Monolithic software architecture than the new Microservice software architecture. End users do not care about the underlying Architecture or Technology; everything he cares about his function.

Here I list some use cases where modular monolithic software architecture will be used in 2020 and beyond:

Small and Simple Apps

source: Martin Fowler

As pioneering Microservices specialist Martin Fowler has pointed out, Monolithic Modular software architecture is a better choice for Applications of a certain size and complexity. In terms of developer productivity, Ruby on Rails or Spring Boot applications up to a certain size can beat the complex Microservice architecture. If a company has one development team (6–8 developers), they must use modular monolithic software architecture.

Modern Modular Monoliths

Unfortunately, there has been little innovation in Modular Monoliths in the last decade, as it may be waiting to die. But since Modular Monoliths has survived the Microservices attack, we can expect some innovation here. Microservices has many new concepts, and Monolith can adopt them.

One of these modern Modular Monolith frameworks is Inertia.js. It combines simple and highly productive Server-Side Web Development frameworks like Ruby On Rails, Django with JavaScript-based SPA like React, Vue. The trick is that they’ve combined the best of both worlds with any API.

More such a framework would provide a significant boost to the development of Modular Monolithic software.

Brownfield application

Microservices are excellent for Greenfield applications. But often, companies already have poorly designed Monolithic apps. One way to handle existing Monolithic applications is to disable them and develop new MicroServices. We all know that disabling a running application is highly unlikely. In addition, replacing that app with a new MicroServices (which will experience childhood problems) will be daunting. A better approach can refactor poorly designed Monolithic applications into Modular Monolithic applications and keep them the way they are.

Applications with complex domains

Microservices is about separating complex systems vertically, i.e. cutting according to domain logic. Sometimes, there are applications with crumpled domains, and it is complicated to decipher the domain. If the tangled domain is divided into Microservices, then it leads to Distributed Monolith with all the bad stuff from Monolith and Microservices. In such a scenario, modular monoliths may be more sinister.

Non-Business, purpose-built applications

Not all apps are Enterprise apps. There are many applications (e.g., Telecommunications, Automotive) where latency and faster response are more important. In addition, there are many specialized domains (e.g., Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Data Storage) where CPU throughput or network throughput are the most important criteria. In such domains, the Modular Monolithic Software architecture will have advantages over Microservices.

Internal Tools

Each company has several internal tools. Usually, this tool will not experience unregulated growth. For internal tool development, Modular Monolithic Software Architecture would be a better choice than Microservices Architecture.


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